Once housed in some of the world's most notorious prisons, the prisoners could never have thought that their forbidding homes would one day become tourist attractions.
These prisons were either home to famous prisoners, well-known from literature, or synonymous with cruelty, which gives them a macabre interest for visitors. Whatever the reasons, many such places are now firmly on the tourist map.
World Famous Prisons
1. Alcatraz, USA
When considering famous prisons, Alcatraz prison in the United States is the one that springs most readily to mind.
It's America's best-known federal prison and was its first maximum security prison. Famous inmates include Al Capone and Robert “Birdman” Stroud.
The prison is situated on Alcatraz Island, a rocky island in San Francisco Bay that is considered impossible to escape from, although 36 men have tried throughout its history.
Closed in 1963, the island and the former supermax prison are now open to tourists. Tours cost between $28 and $60, depending on the length, type, and boat trip to the island.
Visitors can see the prison cells, including the “hole” (solitary confinement), and experience what it is like to be an inmate. There is also a popular night tour of this U.S. penitentiary.
2. The Tower of London, England
Alcatraz only operated for 20 years, but one of the world's most visited prisons was used much longer. The Tower of London, home of Britain's Crown Jewels, was once a notorious prison.
Built in the 11th century, it was a prison up to the mid-20th century. This puts it among a handful of the world's oldest prisons.
This building has seen many notorious inmates, including Henry VI, Anne Boleyn, Rudolph Hess, and several Scottish kings.
A tour of the Tower includes a visit to the cells with an audio tour and interactive displays of prison life. Visitors can also see Tower Green, where executions took place.
The Tower is open daily and costs £17.60 to £20 for an adult. Family tickets are also available.
3. Robben Island, South Africa
Robben Island in South Africa is known for one extremely famous prisoner – Nelson Mandela. Another island prison, it lies seven miles off the coast of Cape Town.
Although a prison for centuries, from 1959, it was a maximum-security facility for political prisoners. Over 3,000 were held here between 1961 and 1991, including Nelson Mandela.
The last prisoners left Robben Island in 1996. Later that year, it became a museum and a national monument of South Africa. Tours cost R230 for adults and R120 for children.
They take about three hours, including the return boat trip to the island, a visit to the prison, and a chance to talk to a former prisoner.
4. Château d'If, France
Nelson Mandela was a real prisoner, but another famous island prison was home to fiction's best-known prisoner – the Count of Monte Cristo.
Château d'If is located off the coast of Marseille, and even if the Count of Monte Cristo was fictional, it did hold many real prisoners from the mid-1600s to the end of the 1800s.
Alexandre Dumas's book, The Count of Monte Cristo, was based on the island, and its success made Château d'If famous.
Two adjacent cells are named after Edmond Dantes and Abbe Faria, the main characters in the book. In the story, Dantes escaped from the island, though nobody is believed to have done this.
Ferries go to the island from Marseille, and an individual return ticket will cost €5. The entrance to the Chateau is €5.50, though there are concession prices and family tickets.
5. Devil's Island, French Guiana
Another famous French prison is on Devil's Island. A book and a film immortalized this, though the story is true in this case. Devil's Island is in the Caribbean, off the coast of French Guiana in South America.
It was open for 90 years from 1832, and around 80,000 prisoners spent time there. As with all island prisons, it was designed to be almost impossible to escape from, and the thick jungles and infested waters around it did make it so.
Albert Dreyfus was imprisoned there, but Devil's Island became famous when Henri Charriere, a former inmate, wrote a book about his successful escape. The film “Papillon” was made later.
The prison closed in 1952, and the restored historic buildings became a tourist attraction. It is possible to take tours of the island, and many visitors go there on excursions from cruise ships that pass by.
6. Elmina Castle, Ghana
The following two prisons are famous for the same terrible reason—both once housed enslaved people en route to the New World.
The first one is the Elmina Castle in Ghana. On the Cape Coast, just west of Accra, it was a holding prison for enslaved people for 300 years, with as many as 200 people in a cell.
At its peak, over 30,000 enslaved people passed through its doors annually. Elmina Castle reached worldwide fame when President Obama visited in 2009.
It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A tour of the castle with a guide costs around $0.50.
7. Goree Island, Senegal
Another UNESCO World Heritage Site is Goree Island in Senegal. This was also a holding prison for enslaved people. It was known as the House of Slaves until the French abolition of slavery in 1848.
Many African Americans come here to learn more about their roots, and Nelson Mandela, George Bush, and Bill Clinton have also visited it.
Goree Island also has a school, a university, a Botanical Garden, and a museum of the history and culture of Senegal.
Ferries are available from Dakar all day and run frequently. The prices are not high, and Full-day tours can also be booked from Dakar.
8. Tuol Sleng, Cambodia
Southeast Asia also has two infamous and dangerous prisons, now tourist attractions. The first is Tuol Sleng in Cambodia.
The brutal Khmer Rouge opened this prison in 1975. It was only open for four years, but over 17,000 male inmates passed through its gates. Few made it out because it was a place of torture and execution.
Tuol Sleng became a museum soon after its closure as a prison. It is a memorial to all those killed during the Khmer Rouge regime.
The museum shows cells as they were at the time of the prison's operation and photographic exhibits.
Tuol Sleng is just outside Phnom Penh and is open daily. Going to the museum is free, but donations are welcome.
9. Hoa Lo Prison, Vietnam
Once a French prison, it was called the “Hanoi Hilton” by the Americans imprisoned there during the Vietnam War.
The most famous prisoner was U.S. presidential candidate John McCain, whose flying suit is displayed in the museum.
The French originally built the prison for political prisoners, and many of Vietnam's leading independence fighters spent time there.
Exhibitions show these former inmates' harsh conditions, many of whom served life sentences, lived in.
There are also exhibitions relating to the American POWs, but they don't reflect the absolute horror shared by those released after the end of the Vietnam War.
The prison complex museum is open daily. The entrance is just 5,000 dong.
10. Port Arthur, Tasmania
Finally, Port Arthur in Tasmania is another prison worth visiting. Once a penal colony, it is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It operated from 1833 until the 1850s and housed the most dangerous criminals.
You can still visit the prison, the hospital, the church, and the insane asylum. The prison was located on a peninsula surrounded by rough seas.
It was virtually impossible to escape with just a narrow strip of land known as Eaglehawk Neck connecting it to the mainland that vicious dogs patrolled.
There are various entrance fees for a half-day, full-day, or two-day visit. The full-day and two-day passes include lunch and snacks; a night tour provides dinner.
The journey through the world's most famous prisons reveals the stark realities hidden within the formidable prison walls, from the chilling solitude of Alcatraz's “hole” to the echoing corridors of the Tower of London and the haunting cells of Robben Island.
Each site, a witness to tales of hard labor, notorious inmates, and escape attempts, now stands as a monument to history's darker chapters.
Once symbols of fear and despair, these prisons have transformed into places of reflection and learning, inviting the curious to explore the depths of human endurance and resilience.
This post is provided in partnership with TravelSupermarket.com.